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Myron Markov
Myron Markov

A Comprehensive Guide to Big Results Now in Tanzania: Download the PDF Documents Here


Big Results Now in Tanzania PDF Download




If you are interested in learning more about the ambitious and innovative education reform program that was launched by the Tanzanian government in 2013, you might want to download the PDF documents that provide detailed information about it. The program, called Big Results Now (BRN), was a transformational initiative that aimed to improve the quality and equity of basic education in Tanzania by applying a delivery approach inspired by Malaysia's successful model. In this article, we will give you an overview of what BRN was, how it was implemented, what challenges it faced, what achievements it made, and what lessons it learned. We will also show you how to download the PDF documents that contain more insights and data about BRN.




Big Results Now In Tanzania Pdf Download



The Background and Objectives of BRN




BRN was adapted from Malaysia's Big Fast Results (BFR) model, which was a comprehensive development strategy that focused on six priority sectors: education, health, rural development, urban public transport, crime prevention, and corruption reduction. BFR used a delivery approach that involved setting clear targets, monitoring progress, holding regular meetings, providing feedback, rewarding performance, and solving problems. BFR was credited with achieving significant improvements in various indicators within a short period of time.


Inspired by BFR, Tanzania's President Kikwete launched BRN in early 2013 as a broad government program that sought to prioritize the available resources to six strategic sectors: energy, water, transport, agriculture, education, and resource mobilization. Within each sector, there were several key initiatives that were designed to address the most pressing challenges and deliver tangible results. For example, in education, there were nine key initiatives that aimed to improve the quality of basic education and increase the pass rates in primary and secondary schools. These initiatives included:



  • Improving teacher attendance



  • Improving student attendance



  • Improving teacher distribution



  • Improving school leadership



  • Improving school infrastructure



  • Improving curriculum delivery



  • Improving examination administration



  • Improving student assessment



  • Improving school ranking



The main goal of BRN in education was to raise the average pass rate in primary school leaving examinations (PSLE) from 31% in 2012 to 80% in 2015, and in secondary school leaving examinations (CSEE) from 45% in 2012 to 70% in 2015. The expected outcomes of BRN in education were:



  • More students completing basic education and progressing to higher levels



  • More students acquiring the necessary skills and competencies for life and work



  • More teachers being motivated, accountable, and effective



  • More schools being well-managed, resourced, and supported



  • More parents and communities being engaged and involved in education



  • More transparency and accountability in the education system



The Implementation and Challenges of BRN




To implement BRN, the Tanzanian government adopted a delivery approach that involved setting up a central delivery unit (CDU) that was responsible for coordinating, monitoring, and supporting the implementation of the key initiatives across the six sectors. The CDU was composed of experts from various ministries, agencies, and development partners, and was led by a chief executive officer who reported directly to the president. The CDU used a set of tools and methods to track progress, identify bottlenecks, provide feedback, and solve problems. Some of these tools and methods included:



  • A dashboard that displayed the key performance indicators (KPIs) and targets for each sector and initiative



  • A lab that brought together stakeholders to brainstorm solutions and develop action plans for each initiative



  • A war room that served as a command center for data collection, analysis, and reporting



  • A stocktake that involved regular meetings between the president, the ministers, and the CDU to review progress and address issues



  • A roadshow that involved visiting the regions and districts to communicate the vision and expectations of BRN



In education, one of the most prominent tools that was used by the CDU was the performance data and ranking system that measured and compared the performance of schools based on their examination results. The schools were classified into three bands: green, yellow, and red, representing high, medium, and low performing schools respectively. The performance data and ranking system was intended to create community awareness and engagement, as well as improve transparency and accountability. The performance data was also used to inform the allocation of resources and incentives to schools.


One of the most controversial incentives that was introduced by BRN was the payment for results (PforR) scheme that rewarded teachers and schools based on their performance in examinations. The PforR scheme was funded by a loan from the World Bank, which agreed to disburse $100 million to Tanzania based on the achievement of certain results indicators. One of these indicators was the improvement of teacher distribution across regions and districts. The PforR scheme aimed to address the problem of teacher shortage and imbalance by offering financial incentives to teachers who agreed to work in remote or hard-to-staff areas. The PforR scheme also offered bonuses to teachers and schools that improved their examination scores or maintained their high performance.


However, BRN also faced many difficulties and limitations in implementing its ambitious agenda. Some of the challenges that BRN encountered included:



  • Lack of political will and commitment from some ministers and officials who resisted or delayed the reforms



  • Lack of capacity and resources at the regional and district levels to execute the action plans and deliver the results



  • Lack of ownership and participation from some stakeholders such as teachers' unions, civil society organizations, and academics who felt excluded or marginalized by the top-down approach



  • Lack of alignment and coordination between different ministries, agencies, and development partners who had conflicting or overlapping mandates and interests



  • Lack of evidence and feedback on the effectiveness and impact of some initiatives such as PforR on teacher motivation and student learning



  • Lack of sustainability and scalability of some initiatives such as school infrastructure improvement that depended on external funding or support



Moreover, BRN also faced some fundamental challenges in addressing the root causes of low quality education in Tanzania. Some of these challenges included:



  • The mismatch between the curriculum content and the learning needs and abilities of students



  • The inadequacy of teacher training and professional development to equip teachers with the pedagogical skills and knowledge to teach effectively



  • The insufficiency of teaching and learning materials such as textbooks, stationery, laboratories, libraries, etc.



  • The inefficiency of examination administration and assessment practices that encouraged rote learning, cheating, corruption, etc.



  • The inequality of access and opportunity for students from different backgrounds such as gender, location, income, disability, etc.



  • The irrelevance of education outcomes to the labor market demands and social development goals



The Achievements and Lessons Learned from BRN




Despite these challenges, BRN also achieved some positive impacts and results in terms of examination scores, teacher distribution, and accountability. According to the official reports and data from the CDU and the National Examinations Council of Tanzania (NECTA), BRN achieved the following results between 2013 and 2015:



  • The average pass rate in PSLE increased from 31% to 68%, exceeding the target of 80%



  • The average pass rate in CSEE increased from 45% to 67%, approaching the target of 70%



  • The number of teachers working in remote or hard-to-staff areas increased by 10,000, meeting the target of improving teacher distribution



  • The number of schools receiving performance-based bonuses increased from 0 to 17,000, covering almost all public schools in Tanzania



  • The number of schools publishing their performance data and ranking increased from 0 to 20,000, enhancing transparency and accountability



These achievements were widely celebrated and publicized by the government and the development partners as evidence of the success and impact of BRN. However, some practitioners and stakeholders also offered some critical reflections and recommendations on BRN based on their experiences and observations. Some of these reflections and recommendations included:



  • Recognizing the complexity and diversity of the education system and avoiding a one-size-fits-all approach that may not suit different contexts and needs



  • Engaging more with the teachers and other frontline workers who are directly involved in delivering education and understanding their perspectives and challenges



  • Ensuring more participation and consultation from various stakeholders such as civil society organizations, academics, parents, students, etc. who can provide valuable inputs and feedback



  • Strengthening the capacity and resources at the regional and district levels to support the implementation and sustainability of the reforms



  • Using multiple sources and methods of data collection and analysis to measure and evaluate the performance and impact of the reforms beyond examination results



  • Addressing the underlying issues of quality and equity in education such as curriculum relevance, teacher competence, learning materials availability, assessment practices, access and opportunity gaps, etc.



These reflections and recommendations can provide useful insights and guidance for future education reforms in Tanzania and other contexts that may adopt or adapt a similar delivery approach. They can also help to identify the gaps and areas for improvement in BRN itself.


Conclusion




In conclusion, BRN was a bold and innovative initiative that aimed to improve the quality and equity of basic education in Tanzania by applying a delivery approach inspired by Malaysia's successful model. BRN achieved some remarkable results in terms of examination scores, teacher distribution, and accountability. However, BRN also faced some significant challenges in terms of political will, capacity, ownership, coordination, evidence, sustainability, and scalability. Moreover, BRN did not address some fundamental issues of quality and equity in education such as curriculum relevance, teacher competence, learning materials availability, assessment practices, access and opportunity gaps, etc. Therefore, BRN can be seen as a mixed success that offers both achievements and lessons learned for future education reforms.


If you want to learn more about BRN and its details and data, you can download the PDF documents that are available online. Some of these documents include:



  • The official website of BRN: https://www.brn.go.tz/



  • The official report of BRN Education: https://www.brn.go.tz/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/BRN-Education-Report.pdf



  • The official dashboard of BRN Education: https://www.brn.go.tz/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/BRN-Education-Dashboard.pdf



  • The official website of NECTA: https://www.necta.go.tz/



  • The official website of NECTA's Big Results Now: https://www.necta.go.tz/brn



  • A paper by Todd and Attfield (2017) on the delivery approach and the role of teachers in BRN: https://www.camb-ed.com/download/file/127/681/big-results-now-in-tanzanian-education-todd-and-attfield-aug-2017pdf



We hope that this article has given you a useful overview of BRN and its implications for education reform. We encourage you to download and read the PDF documents to get more information and insights about BRN. We also invite you to share your thoughts and opinions about BRN with us and others who are interested in this topic.


FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions and answers about BRN:



What is the difference between BRN and BFR?


  • BRN is the adaptation of BFR to the Tanzanian context. BFR is the original model that was developed and implemented by Malaysia. Both models use a similar delivery approach that involves setting clear targets, monitoring progress, holding regular meetings, providing feedback, rewarding performance, and solving problems.



How was BRN funded?


  • BRN was funded by a combination of domestic and external sources. The domestic sources included the government budget, the private sector, and the civil society. The external sources included loans and grants from development partners such as the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the UK Department for International Development, etc.



How long did BRN last?


  • BRN was launched in early 2013 and ended in late 2015. It was a three-year program that coincided with the end of President Kikwete's second term in office. However, some of the initiatives and reforms that were started by BRN continued beyond 2015 under the new administration of President Magufuli.



How was BRN evaluated?


  • BRN was evaluated by various methods and sources. The CDU used a dashboard to track and report the key performance indicators and targets for each sector and initiative. NECTA used examinations results to measure and rank the performance of schools. The World Bank used results indicators to disburse funds to Tanzania. Some independent researchers and evaluators also conducted studies and surveys to assess the effectiveness and impact of BRN.



What are some of the best practices and lessons learned from BRN?


Some of the best practices and lessons learned from BRN include:



  • The importance of having a clear vision, strong leadership, and political commitment for education reform



  • The value of using data and evidence to inform decision making, monitor progress, and provide feedback



  • The benefit of engaging and motivating teachers and other frontline workers who are responsible for delivering education



  • The need for more participation and consultation from various stakeholders who can provide valuable inputs and feedback



  • The challenge of addressing the underlying issues of quality and equity in education that go beyond examination results



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