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Novice Karate Group (ages 8 & up)

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Waylon Reed
Waylon Reed

Chi Square Stata 11 Crack

Totals of 59 early-onset substance users (56.2%) and 46 late-onset substance users (43.8%) composed the study sample (n = 105). The mean ages at onset of alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and crack use were, respectively, 15.2 years (standard deviation, SD = 5.7), 15.6 years (SD = 5.6), 20.2 years (SD = 8.6) and 23.9 years (SD = 12).

chi square stata 11 crack

This hypothesis can be discussed in the light of results from previous studies. A Brazilian study demonstrated that crack and cocaine users aged 25 years or over fitted a drug user profile that was quite prevalent and recurrent in general hospital emergency rooms in São Paulo.36 A 30-year prospective study conducted in New Zealand found that substance dependence, failure to obtain educational qualifications and criminal convictions in adulthood were predicted by early exposure to drugs (up to age 15 years).37 Andreuccetti et al.38 found that 37% of the victims of violent, sudden or unexpected deaths in the city of São Paulo were younger than 30 years of age; 55.3% had ingested alcohol (the most prevalent drug) or had used other drugs (cocaine, cannabis or sedatives and anxiolytics, in decreasing prevalence) before they died; and 15.9% had some form of criminal history. Among this last group, the rate of use of drugs other than alcohol and the rate of use of multiple drugs were higher than they were among victims who had no criminal history.

To evaluate whether missing outcomes could affect the results, we first compared profile patients with and without treatment outcome registration using the Pearson Chi-square test (Additional file 1: Table S1). Because those populations were slightly different, we ran a sensitivity analysis with all unrecorded treatment outcomes set to either successful or unsuccessful (Additional file 2: Table S2).

In the field, data were collected in a standardized questionnaire and data collection forms and was checked for errors and completeness. Data was then counterchecked before entry into DbaseV (Borland International, Scotts Valley, California, USA) using the double entry system. Summary statistics were being performed using STATA version 10 (STATA Corp., Texas, USA). The range and mean were analysed and appropriate tables, graphs and percentage details were displayed. A Chi-square analysis was performed to test the hypothesis. The level of significance was also determined by using 95% of confidence intervals and P-value.

Out of 260 houses 177 (68.1%) were privately owned and 83 (31.9%) were rented by the individuals/municipality. Overall, 172 (66.2%) and 81 (31.2%) of the houses were built of mud and cement, respectively. Almost, 200 (76.9%) and 50 (19.3%) houses were with bare soil floors, and the concrete, respectively. Pertaining the type of the roof, 237 (91.2%), 13 (5.1%) and 10 (3.7%) houses were constructed with the corrugated iron sheet (CIS), thatched, and a few of them with the materials like plastic sheets and tarpaulins, respectively. The investigators also made a visual personal inspection of the potential high-risk sleeping areas (rooms), cloth, and other hiding niches in order to estimate the prevalence of infestation (Table 2) and found that overall 72.7% (189/260) of the households were infested. The chi-square analysis exhibits a strong association between sanitary status and housing conditions (χ2 = 40.91; df = 4; P = 0.0001) (Table 2).

Overall, 80.4% (152/189) of the bedrooms, followed by 65.6% (124/189) of main hall/salon were observed to be infested (Figure 2), and they are the most potential risk-associated rooms or areas in the households. Since bedbugs hide in the cracks and crevices of walls and other materials like bed, chairs and couches, they emerge and get easy access to feed (bite) on the human at night. 15 If family size is quite bigger, all the family members cannot accommodate in the bedroom, rather some of them might prefer to sleep in the salon/main hall. These create an ideal situation for the infestation; consequently the bedrooms and salons are often infested than in any other rooms (Figure 1). Bedbugs are nocturnal feeders and will aggregate together in harbourages in close proximity to where their preferred host sleeps [15] .

Residents were practicing various environmental interventions like plastered the cracks and crevices of walls/ceiling to eliminate the hiding niches of bedbugs, while a few of them frequently exposed their infested materials/cloths under sunlight to inhibit infestation (Table 3). The great majority of the respondents has been using a variety of chemicals, particularly Roach Killer spray/fumigant and 5% of DDT powder (Table 3) to repel or to kill various domestic pests like cockroach, housefly, mosquitoes particularly to curb the bedbug infestation. Indeed insecticides are powerful weapons in the fight against insect vector of diseases and domestic pests. However, the haphazard and unsafe insecticide application could inflict serious negative impacts on human health, animals and the environment [28] [29] . Since insecticides are toxic in nature appropriate awareness campaigns instructing a safe use of insecticide is quite inevitable [29] . In 1950, the DDT was very effective to control the bedbugs [30] , subsequently the liberal use of DDT, and changes in cultural practices had eradicated the infestations in the developed world [31] . Today, pyrethroids are one of the most commonly used insecticides to combat the bedbug infestations. However, bedbugs have developed resistance to several insecticides, including pyrethroids [30] [32] and other insecticides like malathion, diazinon, lindane, chlordane, and dichlorvos too. The recent worldwide bedbug resurgence is mainly attributable to the widespread insecticide resistance, particularly pyrethroids [30] .

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between utilization patterns for condoms and other contraceptive methods and the consumption of alcohol and drugs.METHODS: Exploratory study based on data from a probabilistic sample of 5,040 interviewees aged 16 to 65 years living in large urban regions of Brazil in 2005. The data were collected by means of questionnaires. The chi-square automatic interaction classification tree technique was used to study the use of condoms among interviewees of both sexes and other contraceptive methods among women, at the time of the last vaginal sexual intercourse.RESULTS: Among young and middle-aged adults of both sexes and young men in stable relationships, condom use was less frequent among those who said they used psychoactive substances (alcohol and/or illegal drugs). The possible modulating effect of psychoactive substances on contraceptive practices among mature women seems to be more straightforward, compared to the more subtle effects observed among younger women, for whom the different social classes they belonged to seemed to play a more important role.CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitations resulting from an exploratory study, the fact that this was a representative sample of the urban population of Brazil and not from vulnerable populations, reinforces the need to implement integrated public policies directed towards the general population, with regard to preventing drug consumption, alcohol abuse, sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy and promoting sexual and reproductive health.

The classification tree technique known as the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) was used as an alternative to logistic regression or similar multivariate analysis techniques because of the impossibility of establishing time relationships between the different variables (defined according to different time frames). It was also used because of the complexity of the interrelations between regular use of alcohol and/or consumption of drugs and the adoption of safer sexual practices and contraceptive practices other than the use of contraceptives (as discussed later on).

The modulating effect of psychoactive substances on sexual practices has been little investigated in population-based studies exploring such interrelationships through multivariate analyses. Two Brazilian studies have analyzed the consumption of psychoactive substances (cocaine and crack) as predictors of risky behavior among (respectively) professional female sex workers in Santos, State of São Paulo,17 and in a cohort of men who had sex with men in Rio de Janeiro.15 In both of these studies, the consumption of cocaine and crack was shown to be an independent predictor for unprotected sexual activity, with a significant difference between social classes, to the detriment of those who used drugs and belonged to less favored social strata.

15. Souza CT, Diaz T, Sutmoller F, Bastos FI. The association of socioeconomic status and use of crack/cocaine with unprotected anal sex in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002;29(1):95-100.


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  • Ľudovít Leško
    Ľudovít Leško
  • Anton Danilov
    Anton Danilov
  • Mike Mulah
    Mike Mulah
  • Waylon Reed
    Waylon Reed
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